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The three stages of breast reconstruction

Breast cancer has become so common that most people reading this article will know someone (either professionally or personally) who has been affected by breast cancer. One of the most common treatments for breast cancer is removal of the ‘whole’...

Hand Flaps

This article reads as a book chapter, providing an overview of the different aps available to cover soft tissue defects in the hand. It starts off by providing a general introduction to the functional and anatomical differences of the hand,...

Better outcomes from early repair of type B blow-out fractures

This paper examines whether early, rather than late, surgical repair results in better motility outcomes for a particular subgroup of orbital floor blowout fractures. The authors divide floor fractures into types A and B, depending on whether or not the...

How I Do It - Treating the lower face with HA fillers in elderly patients

Facial rejuvenation treatment of the lower third of the face with hyaluronic acid (HA) fillers in elderly patients can result in the development of fibrous tissue especially after several procedures have been performed. Many patients present with concerns over the...

Maxillo-facial and neck surgery in Iraq and Afghanistan

Over the past 150 years, military personnel wounded in action had a survival rate of approximately 80% [1]. During the current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, those servicemen wounded in action have a 90.4% survival rate [2]. During the past...

Stem cells in reconstructive surgery: a bright but cautious future

Regenerative medicine using stem cell technology is slowly becoming a reality in routine clinical practice especially in the field of tissue regeneration [1]. It is therefore not surprising that stem cell technology is starting to be of interest in reconstructive...

Gross Negligence Manslaughter in Healthcare: The medico-legal dilemma (part 14) – Records of necessary information: Drugs Administered and the physiological response of the patient

It is the system that places the Judge as an interpreter of “truths” and sadly, susceptible to false information.

Reconstruction of the Head and Neck - a defect-orientated approach

Head and neck reconstruction following removal of oncological disease or trauma is the most varied and challenging surgery performed in the world. Techniques range from rotational flaps to free tissue transfer and microvascular anastomosis. All are covered in this textbook....

Reconstruction paediatric lower facial defects with an expanded flap from the submental region

Lower facial and perioral scars from burns or defects following treatment of vascular lesions can lead to serious facial deformity with lip ectropion and asymmetry. Conventional reconstructive methods like skin grafts or free flaps do not always give a satisfactory...

Histologic changes after two different protocols of facial skin fat grafting

The authors of this study show the results of two different protocols of fat grafting using adipose-derived stem cells. This is a prospective study with six consecutive patients in whom bilateral fat grafting was performed using centrifuged stromal cells on...

Natural regression of brow heaviness in thyroid eye disease

This is a retrospective review of the change over time in the sub-brow fat volume in 104 patients with thyroid eye disease. Standardised photographs taken at diagnosis were compared with those taken after an average period of 10 years (+/-...

Long-term complication after nasal dorsum augmentation

This is a case report describing a 54-year-old man who had had a rhinoplasty 10 years earlier and was unaware that he had had a porous polyethylene dorsal nasal implant inserted. He presented with a small pustule in the lower...