Oral photoprotection

The author presents an insightful review of the benefits of systemic photoprotection through orally ingested nutrients, advocating a need for a greater level of protection against free-radicals. Vitamin C is discussed in relation to its role in immune function, collagen...

Is it possible to fix condylar neck fractures with one plate?

Fractures of the condylar neck are fairly common and account for over 25% of all mandible fractures. Over the years a number of modalities have been used to fix these fractures. Direct reduction is complicated by the overlying proximity of...

Reconstruction with scapular tip

Post ablative defects in the maxilla can be extremely complex, involve all three dimensions and result in significant morbidity. Rehabilitation is fraught with difficulties, and a number of options are available, including an obturator or surgical reconstruction with a free...

Old age and postoperative complications of head and neck free flaps

This review examined the relationship between free flap survival in older patients and whether this correlated with specific co-morbid conditions and a ‘cut off’ age.The authors did exclude some papers that specifically focused on one co-morbid condition, such as diabetes,...

Classification of maxillofacial pain

The patient that presents with oral and facial pain can prove a diagnostic conundrum. Whilst most often dental causes can explain the origin and help from our maxillofacial colleagues is warranted, it is useful to have a system for approaching...

Natural regression of brow heaviness in thyroid eye disease

This is a retrospective review of the change over time in the sub-brow fat volume in 104 patients with thyroid eye disease. Standardised photographs taken at diagnosis were compared with those taken after an average period of 10 years (+/-...

Revision of orbital fracture repairs

This is a retrospective review of 13 patients with sub-optimal outcomes following primary orbital fracture repairs who underwent revision surgery. All had fractures of the orbital floor, with four involving other orbital walls, and six also involving other facial bones....

Hypertrophic burn scar-associated pruritus treated with a cooling nanoemulsion-enhanced novel hydrogel

Intractable pruritus is a challenging symptom of burn-induced hypertrophic scars. The exact pathogenesis of itch is unknown and conventional management with anti-histamines is often insufficient. Proposed treatments for pruritus include exposure to a cooling surface and maintenance of a well-hydrated...

All about velopharyngeal dysfunction

The velopharynx functionally separates the oral from the nasal cavities. Inadequate or abnormal function of this muscular valve affects speech and swallow. Velopharyngeal dysfunction can be subdivided into insufficiency, incompetence and mislearning. This is a review paper and indeed a...

Submental island flap to reconstruct the lower lip

The lips are necessary for oral competence, cosmesis, speech and feeding. Non melanoma cancers can affect the lips, and the lower lips are about 80% more likely to be affected. A large number of these cancers are squamous cell carcinomas....

Bad splits

This is a meta-analysis of reported risk factors of a ‘bad split’ in a sagittal split mandibular osteotomy. They identified 30 observational articles and therefore acknowledged it is based on low quality studies. It is compounded by the definition of...

Carnoy’s and the KOT

This is a retrospective review of 105 patients with keratocystic odontogenic tumours treated over a 23-year period with a mean follow-up of 86 months. The recurrence rate was 11.4%. Permanent neuro-sensory deficit of the inferior alveolar nerve was 16%. Younger...