A detailed paper exploring salient concepts of skin anatomy pertinent to aesthetic practitioners, performing non-surgical treatments. Components of the epidermis and dermis are comprehensively described, with emphasis placed on clinicians developing an in depth understanding of how the ageing process affects skin. This is supported throughout by a well referenced discussion on factors of skin ageing. The importance of a detailed consultation and patient history is reinforced with several examples, including establishing episodes of acute sun exposure, burning and tanning as being clinically important for assessment of facial skin pigmentation prior to undertaking resurfacing procedures or laser hair removal, for predicting outcomes and adverse events.
Some commonly performed aesthetic site-specific treatments are described, including model of action, such as retinols, micro-needling, microdermabrasion and chemical peels. Epidermal appendages are defined and explained with dermal site specific options, and hyaluronic acid is the dermal filler which is mainly described. The surface anatomy component could have been explored in more detail, as some discussion is conveyed surrounding the causes of established and more dynamic lines, as there is an emerging body of evidence exploring the origin of a variety facial rhytides.