Chemical peels: a review of types, applications and complications

Chemical peeling agents continue to grow in popularity in response to rising patient demand. The author captures this popular treatment modality with a succinct review of some of the commonly used ingredients, classified broadly by depth into superficial, medium and...

Improving the anatomical understanding of the causation of fine lines

An interesting piece which explores the current evidence of the factors that are thought to lead to facial ageing through fine lines. The author outlines a detailed discussion of the many intrinsic factors which can lead to the emergence of...

Efficacy of radiofrequency technology in the treatment of aesthetic indications

The authors present a clear description of the mechanics of how radiofrequency (RF) was initially developed, supported by a detailed overview of some of the more common RF devices, including their mode of action and applications. The authors include a...

Sun protection is essential to prevent skin cancer and premature ageing

The author gives a brief outline of the key functions of skin with a rationale for why sun care and protection is so important, which is referenced with current guidelines relating to sun exposure and vitamin D. The risks of...

Transgender breast surgery

Most plastic surgeons working outside specialist centres for gender affirmation surgery will have a number of patients within their population wishing to undergo their breast surgery more locally. Surgery for this small minority is informed largely by experience in the...

Post-treatment advice following botulinum toxin injections

The author gives a detailed review of the advice that is routinely offered to patients following treatment with botulinum toxin, as well as the available evidence to substantiate current recommendations. There is a detailed description of the mechanism of action...

Laser treatment of tattoos

A useful and detailed paper on the theoretical and practical applications of laser tattoo removal, supported by an overview of the history of the use of lasers. Specifically, the author describes some of the basic laser physics, the assessment of...

Hyaluronic acid filler for infraorbital hollows

Volume loss theory has changed the traditional theory of excess tissue as the cause of facial aging. Periorbital area is a challenging region for the injection because of its thin skin, increased vascularity, and compromised lymphatic drainage system. So contour...