Transgender breast surgery

Most plastic surgeons working outside specialist centres for gender affirmation surgery will have a number of patients within their population wishing to undergo their breast surgery more locally. Surgery for this small minority is informed largely by experience in the...

Post-treatment advice following botulinum toxin injections

The author gives a detailed review of the advice that is routinely offered to patients following treatment with botulinum toxin, as well as the available evidence to substantiate current recommendations. There is a detailed description of the mechanism of action...

Laser treatment of tattoos

A useful and detailed paper on the theoretical and practical applications of laser tattoo removal, supported by an overview of the history of the use of lasers. Specifically, the author describes some of the basic laser physics, the assessment of...

Hyaluronic acid filler for infraorbital hollows

Volume loss theory has changed the traditional theory of excess tissue as the cause of facial aging. Periorbital area is a challenging region for the injection because of its thin skin, increased vascularity, and compromised lymphatic drainage system. So contour...

Longevity of lip augmentation with SMAS

Lip augmentation is an extremely popular cosmetic procedure. Various surgical techniques have been described. However, only a few studies have specifically addressed lip augmentation with superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS). Postoperative analysis never extended beyond one year so far. The authors...

Medical tattooing for a better life

Dermatography (medical tattooing), was first documented in the 19th century, and is nowadays frequently performed for nipple reconstruction after mastectomy. Despite its popularity in the field of breast reconstruction, this procedure is not used on a broad scale in any...

Dark circles in the periorbital region

The author provides an insightful paper on the aetiological factors involved in dark circles and explores the treatment options. An emphasis is placed on the importance of undertaking a thorough patient consultation and history to establish causative factor(s), as well...

Non-hormonal treatment options during the menopause

The author gives a comprehensive overview of prescribed treatment alternatives to hormone replacement therapy (HRT), discussing lifestyle, diet, alternative therapies, patient support and nurse education. The author argues that treatments for the symptoms of menopause are complex and that nurse...