Submental island flap to reconstruct the lower lip

The lips are necessary for oral competence, cosmesis, speech and feeding. Non melanoma cancers can affect the lips, and the lower lips are about 80% more likely to be affected. A large number of these cancers are squamous cell carcinomas....

Exploration of more effective neurorrhaphy in facial nerve reconstruction

This study was laboratory based and focused on different types of end-to-side neurorraphy, and their effects on treating partial facial paralysis. The ultimate aim of this study was to determine which end-to-side neurorraphy produced the greatest axonal growth across the...

Rhinoplasty for the cleft lip and palate patient

The cleft nose is one of the most challenging pathologies for rhinologists and facial plastic surgeons to address. The combination of architectural deformity (related to the extent of lip deformity) and scarring from previous surgery combine to cause the surgical...

A modification of the crescentic flap for nasal skin reconstruction

Non melanoma skin cancers are the most frequent malignant skin tumours and in over 25% of cases affect the nose. Following excision, the reconstruction can be challenging. The nasal complex has adjacent concave and convex surfaces, minimal laxity and nasal...

Assessment of septal deviation in septorhinoplasty

A variety of methods exist to assess the nasal septum, often dependent of the healthcare resources available, and whether there is a specific pathology affecting the function of the nose. The authors present a small series of patients presenting with...

Management of the eye in facial paralysis

Ocular prevention is the first and foremost priority in the management of the patient with facial paralysis. John J Chi presents a review on the management of the upper and lower eyelid in cases of the paralysed face. In the...

Classification and assessment of midfacial fractures: no more Le Fort facial fractures

There is some evidence that severe or complex midfacial or orbital fractures have declined over the last decade. Interestingly there is also evidence of an increase in road traffic accidents but a decrease in facial injuries. This is possibly attributed...

Airway first in patients with facial trauma

Anyone that has ever been on an advanced trauma life support (ATLS) or indeed any other trauma course will be well indoctrinated with the principles of airways, breathing and circulation (ABC). Securing the airway is of paramount importance; but what...