The use of neuromodulators in the management of TMJ disorders

The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) articulates the mandible to the base of the skull. Temporomandibular joint disorders (TMD) are a group of musculoskeletal syndromes affecting the TMJ and the supporting musculature. The muscles, bony articular surfaces and disc may all be...

Focus on Cosmeceuticals: Skin anatomy and photoageing

Skin anatomy The skin of the face provides crucial functions of temperature regulation, reparative functions following injury, facial expression, protective mechanisms against infection and ultraviolet radiation, as well as sensory perception. The integument consists of two principle layers, the epidermis...

Off-label cosmetic use of botulinum toxin in the lower face

Botulinum toxin A (BoNTA) is commonly used as an off-label cosmetic modality to improve the ageing lower face and neck, and may be used as a single line treatment or in combination with other procedures, such as dermal fillers [1]....

Cryolipolysis: a review of published clinical data

Definition: Cryolipolysis is derived from the greek language, describing ‘cold’ and ‘fat breakdown’. History The actual phenomenon of cold induced adipocyte necrosis was originally described by Epstein et al. in 1970 who had reported the presence of a “red indurated...

A challenging new year

2016 arrived with enthusiastic celebrations although these were more muted in some parts of the world due to local and regional difficulties. As we started to look towards the inevitable return to work in the UK, we heard of the...

A new treatment for genitourinary syndrome of menopause

Genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM) [1] is defined as a collection of symptoms and signs mainly associated with the progressive decrease in oestrogen levels. The lack of hormones, usually produced by the ovaries in fertile age, may lead to genital...

The Linear Bolus Technique and 
other practical tips for the advanced use of non-traumatic cannulas in aesthetic medicine

Some eight years ago, I read about non-traumatic cannulas in the brochure of a French medical supplies company. I was fascinated by the elegance of these instruments, as they respect the integrity of the tissues by not cutting through them....

Non-surgical management of actinic keratosis, Bowen’s disease and non-melanoma skin cancer

Non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs) are primary cutaneous neoplasms comprising mainly of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). In 2011, 102,628 cases of NMSCs (74% BCC and 23% SCC) were recorded in England, making NMSC the most common...

Temple restoration

The complex biological process of facial ageing engenders many structural changes that are influenced by the combined effects of gravity, bone resorption, soft tissue atrophy, displacement of fat and a complex synergy of textural skin changes [1]. One of the...

Cellulite: does wearing compression hosiery work?

Cellulite affects a large proportion of women. Recently several companies have produced compression hosiery claiming to reduce the appearance of cellulite. One of the latest products are ‘Silver Wave’ stockings, made by Solidea, which claim to reduce cellulite using ‘patented...

HA dermal filler with lidocaine: initial clinical outcomes

Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a natural occurring body polysaccharide essential for various body functions, present in connective tissues, skin, vitreous humour of eye, extracellular matrix, synovial fluid, etc [1].It was first isolated in bovine vitreous by Mayer and Palmer in...

Lasers and the skin

Laser is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Lasers have revolutionised the treatment of many skin conditions and are being used both in terms of a medical and an aesthetic context. Laser technology has been advancing...